Çitaku, F.T., Ramadani, H., Zillioux, D., Nathan, A., Mano, M.S., Waldrop, M., Abdallah, A., Hayat Khan, Y., A.Jabbar, F., Nazim, M., Chevane, A.

LEADERSHIP, RISK-TAKING, DECISIONS-MAKING: The newest outcomes from the Science of Leadership. American Journal of Leadership and Governance

ISSN 2519-0857 (online) Vol.5, Issue 1, pp 40-53, 202


Çitaku, F., Ramadani, H. (2020). Leadership Competency Model-Drenica: Generalizability of Leadership Competencies. International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 2020, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 152-16210.33844/ijol.2020.60502


Abdallah, A., Çitaku, F.T., Ramadani, H., Zillioux, D., Waldrop, M., Çitaku Preteni, L., Hayat Khan, Y. (2019). A review of Islamic perspectives on leadership. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management (IJSRM)||Volume||07||Issue||11||Pages||SH-2019-574-578||2019|| Website: ISSN (e): 2321-3418DOI: 10.18535/ijsrm/v7i11.sh02


Mano, M.S., Gomes, R., Werutsky, G., Barrios, C.H., Marta, G., Villarreal-Garza, C. Antonio L. F.,

Sternberg, C., Clara, Renan., Simon, S.D., Citaku, F., Waldrop, M., Voplato, C., Zillioux, D., Hayat Khan, Y. Cross-Cultural Validity Study of a Medical Education Leadership Competencies Instrument in Latin American Physicians: A Multinational Study. November 2019. Journal of Global Oncology 5(5):1-9. DOI: 10.1200/JGO.19.00243. License CC BY-NC-ND


Chevane, A., Çitaku F., Violato, C., Hayat Khan, Y., Zillioux, D., Çitaku Preteni, L., Waldrop, M. (2017). Effective Leadership Style in Extractive Industry: A Case Study of Emerging

Companies in Mozambique. Open Science Journal – November 2017.


Çitaku F, Violato C, Beran T, et al. Leadership competencies for medical education and healthcareprofessions: population-based study. BMJ Open 2012;2:e000812.doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-000812


Vo Thanh Nhan, Claudio Violato, Pham Le An & Tanya N. Beran. Cross-Cultural Construct Validity Study of Professionalism of Vietnamese Medical Students. Teaching and Learning in Medicine: An International Journal. Volume 26, Issue 1, 2014


Violato C. (2013). Doctor-Patient Relationships, Laws, Clinical Guidelines, Best Practices, Evidence Based Medicine, Medical Errors and Patient Safety. Canadian Medical Education Journal, 4(1): e1-e6.


Violato C, Lockyer J & Herta F. (2013). Using Colleagues, Co-workers, Patients and Self Assessment to Assess Surgical Practice: A Theoretical Model of Multi Source Feedback (in preparation) Medical Education.


Gabriel A, Violato C, & Mousa, I (2013). Changes in symptomatic and functional impairments of adult ADHD patients with or without co-morbid generalized anxiety after treatment with stimulants or non-stimulants: A comparative naturalistic study. Journal of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (in press)


Vallevand A, Violato, C & Baig, L. (2013) A generalizability analysis of physicians versus non-physicians of clinical competency in an objective structured clinical exam. Teaching and Learning in Medicine (in press)


Al Ansari A, Donnon T, Al Alawi S, Violato C. (2013). The construct and criterion validity of the multi-source feedback process to assess physician performance: a meta-analysis. Evaluation and the Health Professions. (Submitted: February 22, 2013)


Vo NT, Violato C & An LP. (2013). Construct validity of medical professionalism: A cross-culture study employing Vietnamese physicians Academic Medicine. (in press)


Donnon T, Al Ansari A, Al Alawi S, Violato C. The reliability, validity and feasibility of multi-source feedback for assessing health care professionals: a systematic review. Academic Medicine. (In Press)


Andrews J, Violato C, Al Ansari, Donnon T & Pugliese G. (2013). Assessing Psychologists in Practice: Lessons from the Health Professions Using Multisource Feedback. Professional Psychology, 44, 193-207.


Artemiou E, Adams CL, Vallevand A, Violato C & Hecker KG. (2013). Measuring the Effectiveness of Small Group and Web-Based Training Methods in Teaching Clinical Communication: A Case Comparison Study. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 40, 242-51. doi: 10.3138/jvme.0113-026R1.


Al Khalifa K, Al Ansari A, Violato C & Donnon T. (2013). Multisource feedback to assess surgical practice: A systematic review. Journal of Surgical Education, 70(4): 126-134.


Vo NT, Violato C, An LP, & Beran T. (2013). Cross-cultural construct validity study of professionalism of Vietnamese medical students Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 3; 87-98


Al Khalifa K, Violato, C & Al Ansari, A. (2013). Reduction in weight and BMI and changes in co-morbidities following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding procedure for morbidly obese patients in Bahrain: a five year longitudinal study. SpringerPlus, 2:19 doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-


Gabriel, A & Violato, C (2013). Problem-solving strategies in psychiatry: differences between experts and novices in diagnostic accuracy and reasoning. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 4, 11–16


Baig, L & Violato, C. (2012). Temporal stability of objective structured clinical exams: a longitudinal study using item response theory. BMC Medical Education, 12:121


Lockyer J, Violato C, Wright B, Fidler HM & Chan R. (2012). An analysis of long term outcomes for surgeons from three and four year medical school curricula. Canadian Journal of Surgery, 55, 1-11. 16.


Citaku F, Violato C, Beran T, Donnon T, Hecker K & Cawthorpe D. (2012). Leadership competencies in medical education and health professions: population- based study. BMJ Open, 2:e000812 doi:10.1136


Beran T, Violato E, Faremo S, Violato C, Watt, D & Lake, D. (2012). Ego identity development in physicians: a cross-cultural comparison using a mixed method approach. BMC Research Notes, 5, 249-256


Vallevand, A & Violato, C. (2012). A Predictive and Construct Validity Study of a High-Stakes Objective Clinical Examination for Assessing the Clinical Competence of International Medical Graduates. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 24, 1-9.


Violato C (2011). Challenges Medical Education (editorial). Canadian Medical Education Journal, 2, e1-e5.


Nation JG, Carmichael E, Fidler H, Violato, C (2012). A Clinical Teaching Assessment Instrument based on the Can Meds Roles. Medical Teacher 33(6): e290-6.


El Gubaly, N. & Violato, C. (2011). The International Certification of Addiction Medicine: Validating Clinical Knowledge across Borders. Journal of Substance Abuse Apr; 32(2):77-83.


Gabriel, A. & Violato, C. (2011) Psycho-educational methods for patients suffering from depression: The knowledge seeking instrument (KSI). Journal of Affective Disorders, Oct; 133(3):406-12. Epub 2011 Jun 8.


Gabriel, A. & Violato, C. (2011) Adjunctive atomoxetine to SSRIs or SNRIs in the treatment of adult ADHD patients with comorbid partially responsive generalized anxiety (GA): an open-label study. Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders Aug 11. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21833565


Hecker, K & Violato, C. (2011). A generalizability analysis of a Mini Multiple Interview for Admissions into a Professional Program. Teaching and Learning in Medicine 23(4), 1–6


Ponton-Carss, A., Hutchinson, C. & Violato, C. (2011). Assessing Surgical Skills, Professionalism and Communications in Surgeons. American Journal of Surgery Aug 20. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21861980.


Gabriel A, & Violato C. (2010). Knowledge of and attitudes towards depression and adherence to treatment: The antidepressant adherence scale (AAS). Journal of Affective Disorders 126, 388 – 394.


Andrews, J. & Violato, C. (2010). The Assessment of School Psychologists in Practice through Multisource Feedback. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 25, 328-346


Beran, T & Violato, C. (2010). How to Use Structural Equation Modeling in Medical and Health Sciences Research. BMC Research Notes 3, 267-278


Hecker, K & Violato, C. (2010). Using Standardized Essays in the Admissions Process: The Case of Veterinary Medicine. Journal Veterinary Medicine Education, 37(3):254-7.


Violato, C. & Donnon, T.L. (2010). A New Journal in Medical Education (editorial). Canadian Medical Education Journal, 1, e1-e3.


Watt, D., Violato, C., Lake, D. & Baig L. (2010). Effectiveness of a Clinically Relevant Program to Improve Medical Communications and Clinical Skills of International Medical Graduates. Canadian Medical Education Journal June, e20-e32.


Gabriel, A. & Violato, C. (2010) The Development and Psychometric Assessment of an Instrument to Measure Attitudes towards Depression and its Treatments in Patients Suffering from Non-Psychotic Depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 124, 241–249.


Gabriel, A. & Violato, C. (2010) Depression Literacy Among Patients and the Public: A Literature Review. Primary Psychiatry, 17, 55-64.


Raman, M., McLaughlin, K., Violato, C., Rostom, A. & Coderre, S. (2010). Teaching in small portions enhances long-term knowledge retention. Medical Teacher, 32, 250-255.


Baig, L., Violato, C. & Crutcher, R. (2010). A construct validity study of clinical competence: A multitrait multimethod matrix approach. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 30, 19-25.


Hecker, K. & Violato, C. (2009). Validity, reliability and defensibility of assessments in veterinary education. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 36(3):271-275.


Lockyer, J., Violato, C., Wright, B., & Fidler, H (2009). An analysis of long-term outcomes on the impact of curriculum: A comparison of a 3-year versus 4-year medical schools. Academic Medicine, 84(10):1342-1347.


Gabriel, A. & Violato, C. (2009). The development of a knowledge test of depression and its treatment for patients suffering from non-psychotic depression: A psychometric assessment. BMC Psychiatry, 9, 56-75.


  1. McLaughlin, K., Ainslie, M., Coderre, S., Wright, B & Violato, C. (2009). The effect of differential rater function over time (DRIFT) on objective structured clinical examination ratings. Medical Education 43,989-92


Beran, T. & Violato, C. (2009). Student ratings of teaching effectiveness: Student engagement and course characteristics. The Canadian Journal of Higher Education 39, 1-13.


Raman, M., Violato, C. & Coddere, S. (2009). How much do Gastroenterology Fellows Know about Nutrition?” The Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 43, 559-64.


Hecker, K. & Violato, C. (2009). The Impact of Medical School Curricula: Do Curricular Approaches Effect Competence in Medicine? Family Medicine, 41, 420-426.


Baig, L., Violato, C. & Crutcher, R. (2009). Assessing clinical communication skills in physicians: Are the skills context specific or generalizable? BMC Medical Education, 9, 22-27.


Violato, C., Worsfold, L & Poglar, J (2009). Multi-Source Feedback Systems for Quality Improvement in the Health Professions: Assessing Occupational Therapists in Practice. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 29, 111-118.


Donnon, T., Oddone-Paolucci, E. & Violato, C. (2009). A predictive validity study of medical judgment vignettes to assess students’ noncognitive attributes: A three-year prospective longitudinal study. Medical Teacher, 31,148-55.


Lockyer JM, Violato C, Fidler HM, Alakja, P. (2009) The assessment of pathology/lab physicians through a multisource feedback tool. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 133, 1301-1308.


McLaughlin, K., Vitale, G., Coderre, S. Violato, C. & Wright, B. (2009) Clerkship evaluation – what are we measuring? Medical Teacher 31, 36-39


Beran, T., Violato, C. Kline, D. & Frideres, J. (2009). What do students consider useful about student ratings? Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 33, 519-527.


Violato, C., Donnon, T., Fiordo, R., Andrews, J & Watt, D. (2008). Multi-Source Feedback Systems for Quality Improvement in the Health Professions: Assessing Occupational Therapists in Practice. INFOLAC2008, 4, 25-30.


Pereira J, Palacios M, Collin T, Wedel R, Galloway L, Murray A, Violato C., Lockyer J. (2008). The impact of a hybrid online and classroom-based course on palliative care competencies of family medicine residents. Palliative Medicine, 22, 929-937.


Lockyer, J., Violato, C., Fidler, H.M. (2008) Assessment of radiology physicians by a regulatory authority. Radiology, 247, 771-778.


Violato, C., Lockyer, J. & Fidler, H. (2008). Changes in performance: a 5-year longitudinal study of participants in a multi-source feedback. Medical Education, 42, 1007-13.


Violato, C., Lockyer, J & Fidler, H. (2008). Assessing psychiatrists’ clinical performance. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 53, 525-533.


Collin, V., Violato, C. & Hecker, K. (2008). Predictive Validity of the Medical College Admission Test: A Structural Equation Model. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 13, 129-138.


Hecker, K., & Violato, C. (2008). A Longitudinal Study of Medical School Curricula on Student Performance on the United States Medical Licensing Exam, 1992-1999: A Hierarchical Linear Model. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 20, 1-10.


MacMillan, K. & Violato, C. (2008). A latent variable path analysis of childhood competence: A longitudinal study. Journal of Psychology, 142, 421-436.


Lockyer, J., Violato, C. & Fidler, H. (2007). What multi source feedback factors influence physician self assessments? A five year longitudinal study Academic Medicine, 82, S77-80.


Tsai, T., Lin, C., Harasym, P. & Violato, C. (2007). An instrument measuring values and ideal of physicians: A psychometric analysis based on a Taiwanese sample of new physicians. Medical Teacher, 29, 128-134.


Violato, C. & Hecker, K. (2007). How to use structural equation modeling in medical education research: A brief guide. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 19, 362-371.


Saberton, S. & Violato, C (2007). Implementation of a multi-source feedback system for quality assurance of MRTs. Journal of the Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists, 38, 20-25.


Beran, T, Violato, C. & Kline, D. (2007). How do administrators use faculty ratings of instruction? One university’s experience The Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 37, 27-43.


Donnon, T., Oddone-Paolucci, E & Violato, C. (2007). The predictive validity of the MCAT on medical school performance and medical board licensing examinations: A meta-analysis of the published research. Academic Medicine, 82, 100-106.


Lockyer, J, Violato, C. & Fidler, H. (2006). The assessment of emergency physicians by a regulatory authority. Academic Emergency Medicine, 13, 1296-1303.


Donnon, T. & Violato, C. (2006). Medical students’ clinical reasoning skills as a function of basic science achievement and clinical competency measures: A structural equation model. Academic Medicine, 81(10S), 51-54.


Hecker, K & Violato, C. (2006). Reliability, Validity, and Student Perceptions of an Undergraduate Research Program in Health Sciences (BHSc) as a Pre- Medical Program: A Preliminary Study. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 52, 299-310.


Donnon, T., Violato, C. & DeCoteaux, JG. (2006). Engagement with online curriculum materials and the course test performance of medical students. International Journal of Interactive Technology and Smart Education 10, 150-156.


Violato, C. & Saberton, S. (2006). Assessing Medical Radiation Technologists in Practice: A multi-source feedback system for quality assurance. Journal of the Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technologists, 37, 10-17.


Donnon, T., & Violato, C. (2004). Testing competing structural models of approaches to learning in a sample of Undergraduate students: A confirmatory factor analysis. Canadian Journal of School Psychology 18, 11 – 22.


Andrews, A. & Violato, C. (2004). Advances in graduate research in school psychology: Introduction to the special issue. Canadian Journal of School Psychology 18, 1 – 10.


Violato, C. (2003). Long-term outcomes on child development as a consequence of corporal punishment. Mind, Medicine and Adolescence, 14 (abstract).


Austin, Z., Croteau, D., Marini, A. & Violato. C. (2003). Continuous professional development: The Ontario experience in professional self-regulation through quality assurance and peer review. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 67, 435-452.


Violato, C. (2003). Pathways of human development: From well being to psychopathology. Annual Distinguished Lectures, 3, Faculty of Education, University of Calgary, Volume III.


Violato, C., Lockyer, J. & Fidler, H. (2003). Multi-source feedback: A method for assessing surgical practice. British Medical Journal, 326, 546 – 548.


Lockyer, J., Violato, C. & Fidler, H. (2003). Likelihood of change: A study assessing surgeon use of multisource feedback data. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 15, 168-174.


Violato, C, Marini, A. & Lee, C. (2003). A validation study of expert judgement methods setting pass/fail criteria for high stakes examinations using cluster analysis. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 26, 59-72.


Merali, F., & Violato, C. (2002). Conflicts between immigrant parents and their adolescents on acculturated behaviours. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 3, 65-82.


Violato, C., Salami, L. & Muisnieks, S. (2002). Certification examinations for massage therapists: A psychometric analysis. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 25, 127-132.


Violato, C., Lockyer, J. & Fidler, H. (2006). Assessment of pediatricians by a regulatory authority. Pediatrics, 117, 1403-1410.